Sunday, August 1, 2010

Ergonomics II

Answer the following questions.
1. What is Ergonomics?

It is the study of the workplace to see if it suits the user


2. What are the 5 aspects of Ergonomics?

Safety

Comfort

Ease of use

Productivity

Aesthetics

3. For each aspects of Ergonomics, explain with an example of a product that is designed for the elderly, how the product meet that particular aspect of Ergonomics.


Safety - handrails placed on the sides of walls prevent the possibility of the elderly falling as they have something to hold on to

Comfort - Seats and Beds have cushions on them

Ease of use - The buttons in a Television's control remote are of the right size and of the right distance apart, so the elderly can press one button without having to worry about accidentally pressing the other buttons

Productivity - Scissors with rounded tips so the elderly would not accidentally jab themselves while using it but will still be able to cut things

Aesthetics - Signs should have large fonts and clear pictures to tell the elderly what to do and the consequence of not doing it

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Ergonomics (Product description and Idea Trigger)



i) Describe the product. (Appearance, Color, Function, etc)
Color: Cheese yellow (according to Arthur)
Main function: A pair of hooks to hang things on. Hang to a door by hooking it over the door
Other functions: Slide side to side to adjust to the width of the hanging object

ii) Width adjustment so users can hold objects with different widths. The hooks can also hold up objects that are below a certain weight due to its design. As a hook, the maker considered the weight and durability of the product.

iii) Sometimes the hooks might break if the elderly drop heavy grocery bags on the hooks, its color might also be mistaken for the door on which it is hung so some elderly with poor eye sight might not see it.


iv) the hook can now slide side to side and be adjusted to different heights to suit hunchbacked or taller elderly. It is also portable as it can be folded.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

Elderly Challenge 1

Q1 The elderly housing

Elderly access

Care for the elderly

Opportunities for the elderly

Q2 Safety features for the elderly to be introduced by the goverment

Q3 Money in the Medisave accounts for the elderly should be increased so they can afford medical care

Built medical centres which are fitted especially for the elderly

Q4 Giving them seats on the bus and letting them board or alight the bus before us instead of trying to squeeze through the door.

Give loose change to elderly beggars or buy some of their tissue

Offer our time and services to homes like Ju Eng

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

ADMT desktidy



video

Ergonomics I

Q1.

Workplace A is more messy and cramped than the Workplace B, Workplace A is uncomfortable and is workplace is very complicated. Workplace B is more spacious and organised.

Workplace A has difficulties getting the right view for his computer as he has problems achieving the correct height and depth. Workplace B has a computer arm which allows him to adjust his computer monitor to a position which is comfortable for the user

Workplace A has lights that are either too dark or too bright and his eyes were straining themselves. Workplace B has a light that is only pointing in one direction and can be adjusted to point at a certain object at a time.

Workplace A has a chair which limits the man's every move, even drinking a cup of coffee poses
difficulties to the user. Workplace B has a chair with a relaxing head rest and a arm rest which can
be adjusted to different heights to fit the user's needs

Workplace A has difficulties with his posture when he is exposed to prolonged use of the laptop.
He can not achieve a comfortable view of his laptop and needs to constantly change his posture.
Workplace B has a laptop holder which enables to hold the laptop screen at an angle so that it resembles that of a desktop computer.

Workplace A has very little free space on the desk, his keyboard and desktop computertake up half his desktop, leaving him limited space of his other items , Workplace B has an extendable platform for his keyboard, his computer and documents are also arranged and placed on sliding panels on a vertical wall

Q2.

Workplace B. I has ample space and is very comfortable and can be adjusted to the user's desire
instead of the cramped and messy Workplace A in which the user has to adjust him or herself to suit the workplace

Q3.

1.Comfort and simplicity
2.Height and depth
3.Lighting
4.Movement restriction
5.The posture after being exposed to prolonged use of laptop
6.Deskspace available at any time


Q4.

It will determine what cumstomers think of the product and whether it is worth buying

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

photography

Abstract photography

Adventure photography

Advertising photography

Aerial photography

Architectural photography

Astronomical photography

Baby photography

Black and White photography

Cityscape photography

Close-Up photography

Commercial photography

Concert photography

Conceptual photography

Crime scene photography

Digital photography

Documentary photography

Editorial photography

Equine photography

Family photography

Fashion and glamor photography

Fine Art photography

Food photography

Infrared photography

Landscape photography

Lifestyle photography

Macro photography

Nature photography

Night photography

Nude photography

Pets photography

Photojournalism

Portrait photography

Seascape photography

Sports photography

Still-Life photography

Travel photography

Underwater photography

Wedding photography

Wildlife photography


Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_types_of_photography


aperture

focus

shutter speed

iso sped

metering

white balance

composition

techniques







Cameras, Continued Camera Cameras consist of seven basic components on three parallel planes. components Misadjustment of any component part of a process camera affects the reproduced image in size, clarity, or density. The three parallel planes of a copy camera are the copy plane, the lens plane, and the focal plane. Consult the manufacturer’s operating instructions for precise operator adjustments.


COPY PLANE: The copy plane is a glass copyboard that holds the original copy in place. The most common size is 18 by 24 inches with gridded reference lines to help align the original copy. Vacuum pressure creates suction to flatten the copy during a shoot. The copy plane may move on a track for proportional reductions or enlargements.


LENS PLANE: The lens plane holds the lens in position. Some lens planes have interchangeable lenses. The lens plane moves along a track for proportional reductions or enlargements.


FILM or FOCAL PLANE: The film plane holds the film in place in the back of the camera. The film plane may also have a filter attachment for halftone or color separation work. Without film, the ground glass of the focal plane allows for fine focusing an image.


SCALES: Most cameras reduce to 50 percent and enlarge to 300 percent or a range in between.


FOCUSING CONTROL: Handwheels or cranks rotate to focus an image. Newer machines have automated push-button focusing.


BELLOWS: Bellows are the accordion folded segment between the lens and the film plane. Bellows maintain lighttight integrity during enlargements and reductions.


EXPOSURE CONTROL: Once the copy plane, lens plane, and focal plane are positioned correctly, the camera scales recommend settings for the f/stops and/or the shutter speed. Some cameras are set manually and other cameras are automated. Automated cameras are aperture priority cameras where the operator sets the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture opening. Shutter priority is when the operator sets the shutter speed and the camera selects the aperture. Little figuring is done by the operator in either case.


Source: http://www.tpub.com/content/draftsman/14064/css/14064_213.htm















In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane. The aperture determines how collimated the admitted rays are, which is of great importance for the appearance at the image plane. If the admitted rays also pass through a lens, highly collimated rays (narrow aperture) will result in sharpness at the image plane, while uncollimated rays (wide aperture) will result in sharpness for rays with the right focal length only. This means that a wide aperture results in an image that is sharp around what the lens is focusing on and blurred otherwise. The aperture also determines how many of the incoming rays are actually admitted and thus how much light reaches the image plane (the narrower the aperture, the darker the image).

An optical system typically has many openings, or structures that limit the ray bundles (ray bundles are also known as pencils of light). These structures may be the edge of a lens or mirror, or a ring or other fixture that holds an optical element in place, or may be a special element such as a diaphragm placed in the optical path to limit the light admitted by the system. In general, these structures are called stops, and the aperture stop is the stop that determines the ray cone angle, or equivalently the brightness, at an image point.

In some contexts, especially in photography and astronomy, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture stop rather than the physical stop or the opening itself. For example, in a telescope the aperture stop is typically the edges of the objective lens or mirror (or of the mount that holds it). One then speaks of a telescope as having, for example, a 100 centimeter aperture. Note that the aperture stop is not necessarily the smallest stop in the system. Magnification and demagnification by lenses and other elements can cause a relatively large stop to be the aperture stop for the system.

Sometimes stops and diaphragms are called apertures, even when they are not the aperture stop of the system.

The word aperture is also used in other contexts to indicate a system which blocks off light outside a certain region. In astronomy for example, a photometric aperture around a star usually corresponds to a circular window around the image of a star within which the light intensity is summed.[2]

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture



















A camera is a device that records images, either as a still photograph or as moving images known as videos or movies. The term comes from the camera obscura (Latin for "dark chamber"), an early mechanism of projecting images where an entire room functioned as a real-time imaging system; the modern camera evolved from the camera obscura.

Cameras may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A camera generally consists of an enclosed hollow with an opening (aperture) at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. A majority of cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image on the recording surface. Most 20th century cameras used Photographic film as a recording surface, while modern ones use an electronic camera sensor. The diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm mechanism, but some cameras have a fixed-size aperture.

A typical still camera takes one photo each time the user presses the shutter button. A typical movie camera continuously takes 24 film frames per second as long as the user holds down the shutter button, or until the shutter button is pressed a second time.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera





Slow shutter speeds are often used in low light conditions, extending the time until the shutter closes, and increasing the amount of light gathered. This basic principle of photography, the exposure, is used in film and digital cameras, the image sensor effectively acting like film when exposed by the shutter.

Shutter speed, or more literally exposure time, is measured in seconds, but often marked in reciprocal seconds. A typical exposure time for photographs taken in sunlight is 1/125th of a second, typically marked as 125 on a shutter speed setting dial. In addition to its effect on exposure, shutter speed changes the way movement appears in the picture. Very short shutter speeds are used to freeze fast-moving subjects, for example at sporting events. Very long shutter speeds are used to intentionally blur a moving subject for artistic effect.[1]

Adjustment to the aperture controls the depth of field, the distance range over which objects are acceptably sharp; such adjustments generally need to be compensated by changes in the shutter speed.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shutter_speed







Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. Relatively insensitive film, with a correspondingly lower speed index requires more exposure to light to produce the same image density as a more sensitive film, and is thus commonly termed a slow film. Highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality (via coarser film grain or higher image noise of other types). Basically, the higher the film speed, the worse the photo quality.


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_speed


Metering

In this metering mode the camera will use the light information coming from the entire scene and averages for the final exposure setting, giving no weighting to any particular portion of the metered area.


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metering_mode

photography

Abstract photography

Adventure photography

Advertising photography

Aerial photography

Architectural photography

Astronomical photography

Baby photography

Black and White photography

Cityscape photography

Close-Up photography

Commercial photography

Concert photography

Conceptual photography

Crime scene photography

Digital photography

Documentary photography

Editorial photography

Equine photography

Family photography

Fashion and glamor photography

Fine Art photography

Food photography

Infrared photography

Landscape photography

Lifestyle photography

Macro photography

Nature photography

Night photography

Nude photography

Pets photography

Photojournalism

Portrait photography

Seascape photography

Sports photography

Still-Life photography

Travel photography

Underwater photography

Wedding photography

Wildlife photography


Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_types_of_photography


aperture

focus

shutter speed

iso sped

metering

white balance

composition

techniques







Cameras, Continued Camera Cameras consist of seven basic components on three parallel planes. components Misadjustment of any component part of a process camera affects the reproduced image in size, clarity, or density. The three parallel planes of a copy camera are the copy plane, the lens plane, and the focal plane. Consult the manufacturer’s operating instructions for precise operator adjustments.


COPY PLANE: The copy plane is a glass copyboard that holds the original copy in place. The most common size is 18 by 24 inches with gridded reference lines to help align the original copy. Vacuum pressure creates suction to flatten the copy during a shoot. The copy plane may move on a track for proportional reductions or enlargements.


LENS PLANE: The lens plane holds the lens in position. Some lens planes have interchangeable lenses. The lens plane moves along a track for proportional reductions or enlargements.


FILM or FOCAL PLANE: The film plane holds the film in place in the back of the camera. The film plane may also have a filter attachment for halftone or color separation work. Without film, the ground glass of the focal plane allows for fine focusing an image.


SCALES: Most cameras reduce to 50 percent and enlarge to 300 percent or a range in between.


FOCUSING CONTROL: Handwheels or cranks rotate to focus an image. Newer machines have automated push-button focusing.


BELLOWS: Bellows are the accordion folded segment between the lens and the film plane. Bellows maintain lighttight integrity during enlargements and reductions.


EXPOSURE CONTROL: Once the copy plane, lens plane, and focal plane are positioned correctly, the camera scales recommend settings for the f/stops and/or the shutter speed. Some cameras are set manually and other cameras are automated. Automated cameras are aperture priority cameras where the operator sets the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture opening. Shutter priority is when the operator sets the shutter speed and the camera selects the aperture. Little figuring is done by the operator in either case.


Source: http://www.tpub.com/content/draftsman/14064/css/14064_213.htm















In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane. The aperture determines how collimated the admitted rays are, which is of great importance for the appearance at the image plane. If the admitted rays also pass through a lens, highly collimated rays (narrow aperture) will result in sharpness at the image plane, while uncollimated rays (wide aperture) will result in sharpness for rays with the right focal length only. This means that a wide aperture results in an image that is sharp around what the lens is focusing on and blurred otherwise. The aperture also determines how many of the incoming rays are actually admitted and thus how much light reaches the image plane (the narrower the aperture, the darker the image).

An optical system typically has many openings, or structures that limit the ray bundles (ray bundles are also known as pencils of light). These structures may be the edge of a lens or mirror, or a ring or other fixture that holds an optical element in place, or may be a special element such as a diaphragm placed in the optical path to limit the light admitted by the system. In general, these structures are called stops, and the aperture stop is the stop that determines the ray cone angle, or equivalently the brightness, at an image point.

In some contexts, especially in photography and astronomy, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture stop rather than the physical stop or the opening itself. For example, in a telescope the aperture stop is typically the edges of the objective lens or mirror (or of the mount that holds it). One then speaks of a telescope as having, for example, a 100 centimeter aperture. Note that the aperture stop is not necessarily the smallest stop in the system. Magnification and demagnification by lenses and other elements can cause a relatively large stop to be the aperture stop for the system.

Sometimes stops and diaphragms are called apertures, even when they are not the aperture stop of the system.

The word aperture is also used in other contexts to indicate a system which blocks off light outside a certain region. In astronomy for example, a photometric aperture around a star usually corresponds to a circular window around the image of a star within which the light intensity is summed.[2]

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture



















A camera is a device that records images, either as a still photograph or as moving images known as videos or movies. The term comes from the camera obscura (Latin for "dark chamber"), an early mechanism of projecting images where an entire room functioned as a real-time imaging system; the modern camera evolved from the camera obscura.

Cameras may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A camera generally consists of an enclosed hollow with an opening (aperture) at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. A majority of cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image on the recording surface. Most 20th century cameras used Photographic film as a recording surface, while modern ones use an electronic camera sensor. The diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm mechanism, but some cameras have a fixed-size aperture.

A typical still camera takes one photo each time the user presses the shutter button. A typical movie camera continuously takes 24 film frames per second as long as the user holds down the shutter button, or until the shutter button is pressed a second time.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera





Slow shutter speeds are often used in low light conditions, extending the time until the shutter closes, and increasing the amount of light gathered. This basic principle of photography, the exposure, is used in film and digital cameras, the image sensor effectively acting like film when exposed by the shutter.

Shutter speed, or more literally exposure time, is measured in seconds, but often marked in reciprocal seconds. A typical exposure time for photographs taken in sunlight is 1/125th of a second, typically marked as 125 on a shutter speed setting dial. In addition to its effect on exposure, shutter speed changes the way movement appears in the picture. Very short shutter speeds are used to freeze fast-moving subjects, for example at sporting events. Very long shutter speeds are used to intentionally blur a moving subject for artistic effect.[1]

Adjustment to the aperture controls the depth of field, the distance range over which objects are acceptably sharp; such adjustments generally need to be compensated by changes in the shutter speed.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shutter_speed







Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. Relatively insensitive film, with a correspondingly lower speed index requires more exposure to light to produce the same image density as a more sensitive film, and is thus commonly termed a slow film. Highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality (via coarser film grain or higher image noise of other types). Basically, the higher the film speed, the worse the photo quality.


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_speed


Metering

In this metering mode the camera will use the light information coming from the entire scene and averages for the final exposure setting, giving no weighting to any particular portion of the metered area.


Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metering_mode